The relation between formal and informal may be changing due to the introduction of new technologies and the way these are used. Informality can be interpreted as a positive quality hinting at individual freedom, or even be romanticised as a bottom-up, empowering force. But informality as a safety valve for a system unable to adjust to changing conditions smoothly and quickly is another matter. Consider the mass migrations of people who must provide their own housing, or the vast numbers of unemployed who provide labour in a growing economy but are easily discarded later. With texts by Guus Beumer, René Boer, Keller Easterling, Jacqueline Hassink, and others.